Sticky Grammar! #5: Gender Walls

By the end of article #4 in this series, I had presented the new vocabulary for Christmas presents and repeated it with the class using a song (12 Days of Christmas) and various activities to be done in pairs, but we hadn’t looked at any techniques for remembering the gender of the nouns, and as that is particularly important in this unit (we’re coming up to using preceding direct object pronouns in the perfect tense and agreements), that’s what we’ll look at here.  Quite unusually for me, the song is basically a list of vocabulary.  There are all sorts of ways songs can be used… but that’s another post, another day.

Gender Walls

This activity is ideal for when you need learners to keep 2, 3 or 4 categories completely separate in their minds.  I have used it in French & Spanish and some colleagues of mine have used it in German and Italian.  I have used it in KS3, 4 and 5 to help pupils distinguish between masculine and feminine nouns, masculine & feminine adjectives where there is a difference in pronunciation (vert / verte; blanco / blanca / blancos / blancas), and for past, present and future tenses.  I have also on occasion used it for government of verbs in French in KS5 (distinguishing between those verbs which take à and those which take de) and between subjunctive and indicative forms.  As activities go, this has a very high success rate, success being understood here as the vast majority of the class remembering, internalising and using the concepts way beyond the lesson and unit in which they were encountered, and very reliable for me in terms of gauging within the lesson how many and who have grasped it.  It is also extremely simple to prepare and run.  You can use it with a whole class and, much more importantly from my point of view, run it as a pairwork game, thus increasing the intensity and involvement in the activity.  As such, it is my methodological weapon of choice when teaching these items of language.

Let’s set a bit of context.  I start off the lesson (the second or third in the sequence, depending on how long it took to present and practise the vocabulary) by setting the homework.  Always best to set it first thing, I find.  It gives pupils who don’t understand what I’m banging on about time to ask questions if they need to and I don’t set myself up for the stress-inducing situation at the end of a lesson where I’m frantically trying to set up the homework, the class doesn’t understand and I know I’ve got to get this lot out of the room and off the corridor before the next lot arrives.  And then the homework is a load of rubbish when it comes in!  So the start of the lesson it is.  I give the class a strip of paper, about 1/3 size of A4, with a dozen sentences on it (take a look at the powerpoint in the first post).  The sentence (repeated a dozen times) is basically this: “Le jour de Noël mes parents m’ont offert une chaîne stéréo mais quand je l’ai ouverte il y avait un problème.”  Each time there is a different present.  Some of the sentences contain mistakes, some don’t.  All of the mistakes centre around the direct object pronoun and the agreement.  The pupils have to work out whether the sentence is correctly written or not, and if not, correct it.

Step 1: Get the pupils to stick the sheet in their books.

Step 2:  Get the pupils to record the homework in their homework diaries: Il faut cocher les phrases correctes et corriger les phrases qui contiennent des erreurs.  Date limite: …

Step 3: Start explaining!  Normally I’d have a bit of back-and-forth with the class about the homework, negotiating (apparently) a deadline, arguing about how much I’m giving them, speculating on what they might have to do this week (before they’ve seen it) and so on, but not this time – I know I’ll be under some pressure of time to get to the end within the lesson, so full steam ahead.

Well, I say that Step 3 is when I start explaining.  In reality, the whole of the lesson is an explanation, or more accurately, a demonstration.  I like to get the whole administrative side of setting the homework out of the way first, then books closed, then I’ve got them all with me before I start.  As they look at the homework, they won’t know what to do.  I acknowledge that, tell them not to panic, that now at (for example) 9.00 a.m. they don’t know what to do, but at 9.45 a.m. (or whatever time the lesson finishes), they will, and these activities will make it possible.  Straight into Gender Walls:

Here, I want pupils to remember perfectly which nouns are masculine and which are feminine.  I need an A5 flashcard for each noun, preferably masculine ones on blue card, feminine ones on red card, because these are the colours I used on my visualiser sheet when introducing the vocabulary earlier.  Failing that, white card with blue/red ink.  There is nothing flashy about these flashcards – just the words will do.  You can have the pictures too, but you must have the words written down and large enough to be seen across the room.

Stage 1:

I blu-tack/attach with a magnet all of the masculine singular nouns in a line along the left-hand wall in a random order.  I tell them that all of those nouns constitute a category and I ask them what it is.  If they are used to this sort of thing they will tell me straight away, otherwise I might need to give them a nudge: MasculinI make sure they can pronounce un correctly.  (A small point, but the next stage will break down if this isn’t clarified).  I give the class 5 seconds to memorise the order of the flashcards and then turn to face me as I stand on the right-hand side of the room.  I pick on some poor, sleeping pupil and they have to tell me the vocabulary in order without looking at the flashcards: Le jour de mon anniversaire, mes parents m’ont offert un rasoir électrique, un jeu-vidéo, un appareil-photo…   5 seconds isn’t long enough to remember the order perfectly before starting the activity so that when they make a mistake I can jump in with: Menteur!  Tes parents t’ont offert… and then the item they forgot or got wrong.  They go back to the beginning and start again.  I keep a count of how many times they had to start again, and then it’s another pupil’s turn after I’ve jumbled the order again.  The winning pupil is the one who has to start again the least number of times.  Then it’s over to the class to do it in pairs with one (guessing) pupil looking away, the other looking at the cards.  That’s why you need the vocab written on the flashcards – it doesn’t work if there are any doubts as to the vocabulary.

At the end of the activity I put the homework back up on the screen.  Clear now?  NO?!  Of course not, but it’s not 9.45 a.m. yet.  Don’t panic.  On to the next stage of Gender Walls.

Stage 2:

Next up on the wall are the feminine singular nouns, but they need to go on the opposite wall to the masculine nouns.  Sticking cards up on a wall, like giving out books, collecting in work or just looking for something on my desk, is of course a transition, and in my book, any transition is a danger point for ‘losing’ a class or giving them a cue to start chatting which I’ve then got to step in and stop.  Especially so here, as I’ll probably have to turn my back on them, never a safe moment…  So, rather than do that, just before each card goes up, I give them a very quick paraphrase of whichever card I happen to be holding for them to guess before I show them what it is and stick it on the wall.  This gives me a pause between putting each card up, an opportunity for language practice (I always say the sentence very fast) and they don’t have time to “make their own entertainment”.  What is going on in their heads this time I paraphrase is different to what took place when I introduced the vocabulary in the first place – they know what all the answers are this time, they just don’t know which one is the right one, and the paraphrase will get them to their answer.  So why not talk as fast as you possibly can?  It ups the ante and it’s better than a CD for listening practice…

Again I say that these red cards represent a category.  What is it?  Féminin!  Alors, un ou une?  Une!   This time, pupils don’t have to remember the order of the nouns, but close their eyes and tell me which wall they are stuck to.  “Le jour de Noël, mes parents m’ont offert ****** chemise.”  (Beep out the article with a bicycle horn or some other noise you might even produce yourself).  The class responds with “un chemise / une chemise” according to what they think is right and point to the correct wall.  The pointing is very important and they may need a nudge to realise that they have to do it.  You can see quite clearly who’s getting it and who isn’t.  (Much more reliable than asking a class to give you a thumbs up / down response as to whether they think they understand something.)   I repeat the same thing with a few more vocabulary items, randomly switching between masculine and feminine nouns.  And then?  In pairs, of course!  They swap over when you say so.  Activities such as this don’t really need instructions, you just do them.  In fact, if you explain it, it’s more likely to stall.  Just do it.

This activity works so well because the feminine adjectives are the “new information”.  They have done so much with the masculine nouns that they know these words they are now including were not part of that first category.  Try it, you will be surprised!

At the end of the activity, up goes the homework on the screen again.  All clear? No?!  Of course not, it’s still only 9.25!  Straight onto  the next stage of Gender Walls:

Stage 3:

Exactly the same as Stage 2, except this time instead of pupils just giving you the indefinite article, they respond “mais quand je l’ai ouvert / ouverte” as appropriate.  Before I let them loose on this I need to make sure they understand what they are saying.  Take a look at the powerpoint in the first post in this category.  I back up the meaning with mimes and full sentences so that they get the context, and I point out that the word order is different in French compared to in English (Je l’ai ouvert / I opened it), but without actually using English.  This can easily be communicated by saying the French sentence correctly and then saying the same words in an English order (le at the end), and some arm-crossing to show how the sentence has a different pattern.  It’s important that the last thing they hear from me, though, is the correct version.  When I elicit the response, “mais quand je l’ai ouverte”, we make a T with our hands to emphasise the difference in pronunciation.  I do a couple of examples with the class, and then it’s back to doing it in pairs.  For all of these quick pairwork activities, I let them run for about a minute, or a minute and a half before getting pupils to swap over.  It’s tempting to stop them too early, but it’s important to give pupils the thinking time so that the activity can be effective.  It also gives me a break in the lesson to draw breath and think about where it’s all going and whether I need to go back a bit, hurry up a bit or put in another stage somewhere.  How often do we think about what we are doing as the teachers, when really it’s what they are doing as the pupils that really matters?

At the end of the activity, we take another look at the homework.  Ah!  It’s getting clearer now!  But there are still a few more holes to plug.  On to the next stage:

Stage 4: 

This time the masculine plural nouns are added to the wall, the same wall as the masculine singular nouns, but along a bit so they are clearly separate.  I go back to the powerpoint slide I used in Stage 3 and see if they can work out how the sentence should be different when, instead of using un rasoir électrique, we use des patins à roulette.  (Je l’ai ouvert > Je les ai ouverts).  Some of them will probably get it.  In any case, I need to show them.  Again they do the same activity, pointing to the right wall with their eyes closed and filling in the sentence.  This stage in the activity helps them to distinguish very clearly between Je l’ai and Je les ai, a tiny difference which would sail right past many pupils.  A quick pairwork, then the feminine plurals can go up on the wall, on the same wall as the feminine singular, but along a bit.  By this point, many more pupils are likely to guess how the sentence will look before they are shown.  Now the activity can be run with pupils pointing in up to 4 different directions, depending on whether the noun they are given is masculine, feminine, singular or plural.

Finally (almost), the homework goes up on the screen again.  All clear now?  Yes!

This may seem like a very long-winded way to do something which could be explained much more quickly in English.  I would agree, it would be much quicker to do it in English but, in my view, a wasted opportunity.  It gives pupils the chance to learn through the target language something they didn’t already know.  It’s not a mere re-labelling exercise, this is a concept they don’t already have.  It teaches them that the foreign language is capable of expressing complex things and not just ordering ice-creams.  It shows them that I don’t have to revert to English to express important or complicated things, and in this way it gives the language status.  A quick trip to the maths department will prove that pupils have to think very hard in that subject.  Why should it be so different for languages?  It also doesn’t have to be long-winded.  A lot depends on the pace we maintain as we present a lesson like this, and the back-and-forth between the teacher and the class, between whole-class work and pairwork, does a lot to maintain pace and sustain concentration in a way which keeps the class busy, breaks up the information input and gives me a break as well.

But there is still one more stage I want to put in before I leave it to the class to crack on with the exercise at home.  On the powerpoint you will find a number of sentences (some correct, some incorrect) which, as a class, we discuss very quickly:  Bonne phrase ou mauvaise phrase?

“Le jour de Noël, mes parents m’ont offert une raquette de tennis, mais quand je l’ai ouverte, il y avait un problème

Raquette de tennis – masculin ou féminin?  Féminin!  (pointing to the right wall).  Ouverte, masculin ou féminin ?  Féminin ! Alors, c’est bon ?  Jusqu’ici, c’est bon.  Une raquette de tennis, c’est singulier ou pluriel ?  C’est singulier !  Ouverte, singulier ou pluriel ?  Singulier !  Je l’ai, singulier ou pluriel ? Singulier !  Alors, c’est une bonne phrase ou une mauvaise phrase ?  Bonne phrase !

And in this pretty straightforward way we look at the other sentences on the powerpoint, deciding whether they are correct or incorrect.  This helps pupils to see the relationships between the various elements of the sentence, and there is no need to go into English to do it.

Now they really are in a position to get cracking on their homework … and it’s just coming up to 9.45….

Next time?  My favourite activity of the lot!

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Sticky Grammar! #4: 20 clues, 20 questions

Now, where were we?  In this series of posts we’re looking at ways to make grammar stick with classes of all abilities, especially the difficult bits that are often reserved for higher sets, by incorporating visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning styles into the way in which the language is presented and practised.  More briefly put, how do we make the tricky sticky?  (Did you see what I did there?!)  The idea is that by the time they get to use the structure(s) in a more open-ended activity, it’s more likely to be successful and it will stay with them way beyond the unit in which they learned it.

It’s an upside-down, back-to-front way of looking at grammar as well, because the learners don’t start with the rules, they end with them.  They use the language correctly in context first, their awareness is raised to salient grammatical features (gender, endings, number, word order, etc.), then they are put in situations where they have to recall, and then in situations where they have to decide whether what they see is correct or not based on how they have been using the language so far.  In this way, I lead them to discover the rules as they develop hypotheses and then go on to test them out.  Finally they are let loose on a less controlled activity where the grammar they have been learning in an almost discreet way is part and parcel of completing the task.

Just before we get to memorising genders, which is coming up in the next post, let me clarify a couple of repetition activities I mentioned very quickly in the last article and referred to in the powerpoint (first post in this category): 20 clues and 20 questions.

20 Clues

By this point, I have introduced some of the vocabulary, but the class hasn’t done anything with it yet.  In this activity, pupils have a copy of the pictures I used to introduce the vocabulary, photocopied onto card (I usually reduce them to ½ size) and cut up.  They don’t need to be colour photocopies, and you don’t need to cut them up – it’s a job of a few seconds for the class to do if you have a class set of scissors, but it will take you a good 15-20 minutes if you do it all yourself before the lesson.  Goodness, you could have had a cup of tea in that time!  I recommend photocopying onto as many different colours of card as your reprographics department has.  It’s much quicker to track down the right envelope if you find a card on the floor at the end of the lesson, however careful you’ve been about how the pupils are to clear up.  There’s always one…  Small pay envelopes are better than letter envelopes, and a class set will fit in an A5 envelope ready for next time.  I also photocopy enough for a class of 40, so that as sets get worn out and destroyed I can just throw them away without needing to remember to go and make another set.

The idea is that Pupil 1 chooses a card and gives Pupil 2 clues to guess what it is.  OK, you can do this without cards by getting them to choose a present off the screen and writing it down, but I find it always goes better when there are cards to move around.  Now Pupil 1 can use some of the phrases I have been using in presenting the language (have a look at post #3 in this category) to give their partner a clue.  If they guess it straight away, they get 5 points.  If they need a clue before they get it, 4 points, another clue, 3 points, and so on.  (As you can see, it’s not actually 20 clues at all, but I’ve always called it that!).  The same slide on the powerpoint that was used in presenting the language can be used in this pairwork activity.

20 Questions

By this point I have introduced a few more vocabulary items.  This activity gives you a subtle opportunity to keep recycling the vocabulary they learned earlier, plus the new vocabulary immediately before this activity.  The activity is exactly the same as 20 clues, and it uses the same cards (plus the extras) only this time it’s Pupil 2 who is fishing for clues by sticking Est-ce que… at the start of the sentence.  Of course, both of these activities can be dispensed with, and the amount of time you have and how it’s all going will determine what you can do.  It’s certainly beneficial to do them because they break up the Teacher-Class dynamic, they increase what is coming out of the average mouth in the room, it gives those who may have missed a lesson a chance to catch up a bit, and it pushes it all a bit further into the memory.  I only ditch these activities when I really have to.

You might be wondering how I have a powerpoint and a visualiser projecting on the screen at the same time…  If you can, it’s a good idea to have two projection spaces on the front wall.  In one school I was in that wasn’t possible so I had the left hand wall painted white so I could project onto that.  It means you need two projectors, of course, and for many that won’t be an option, but it could be a good use of department money one year to invest in some extra projectors.  Beaming onto a write-on whiteboard is not good if you can help it – the shine is too reflective and it isn’t good for pupils’ eyes.  I had mine moved to one side as I used it less and had the wall painted white where the write-on whiteboard had been.  It also gave me more space higher up on the wall to project than where IWBs tend to be fitted (it’s a pain when those at the back can’t see anything on the bottom half of the screen).

Well, with that done, let’s get onto learning the genders of nouns, which is going to be a bit of a long post, and for that, you’ll have to wait until next Friday!