Now, where were we? (Click here
for last week’s post)
The vocabulary is written on one side of the card and on the other, the same word, but all the letters are jumbled up.
- Jumbled sentences
The same idea, but with whole sentences. The words are complete and correctly written, but the sentence is jumbled. The longer the sentence, the more tricky it is, of course, but if your aim is to help pupils to memorise sentences here, shorter ones often work better. An activity like this is great for grammar and for building up their sense of what looks right in the foreign language.
This time there is a full definition on the back of the card, in the target language of course, and at a language level appropriate to the class. Whenever I do this with a class, I provide the definitions, for accuracy’s sake!
- Writing in the air
No cards needed for this one and it’s the only technique here which must be done with at least one other person. One pupil writes the word in the air with their finger, the other one has to guess which word it is. If they can’t write backwards, they’ll need to turn round so their partner can watch over their shoulder, otherwise they’ll see a mirror image!
This can be done with or without cards, (a text on paper if no cards are used), with single words or whole sentences. When using cards, flip one card face down to use as a cover and put it over a face-up card. As you move it to the right (or to the left if you start at the end of the word), the other person has to guess the word before it is fully revealed. If you use a text on paper, you need two cards to cover the text. One is moved down (to just below the words) and the other is moved slowly to the right. Again, the other person has to guess the words before each one is fully revealed. The ‘revealer’ can speed up and slow down as they wish. The guessing pupil can be encouraged to look back at earlier words if they begin to find it difficult in order to refresh their sense of context.
Notes (these notes also refer to last week’s post):
- Wherever possible, I dissuade pupils from writing in their native language on their cards.
- Make sure everyone checks that they’ve spelt the vocabulary correctly before they start using the cards. These are effective techniques, so you don’t want them learning msitaekes!
- For languages which distinguish between the gender of nouns, colour-coding words can be very helpful. I’ve always used blue for masculine, red for feminine. It doesn’t matter which colours you use, as long as you stick to the same ones. All the words can be on the same colour of card, it’s just the pens they use that need to be different!
- For the techniques which use words on both sides of the cards, as they go along, they put their cards in two piles, one of correct guesses and one of incorrect. At the end, the incorrect ones are shuffled and they keep going until they have got them all right.
- An obvious point, perhaps, but one worth making: they must spell the words they guess! Given that most speaking activities can also be writing activities, they can give their response orally (much faster, maintains pace) or in writing. You choose.
- Words should be written in lower case letters rather than all capitals so that the shape of the word is retained.
- Most of these activities are particularly appealing to visual and kinaesthetic learners. There is not much here for auditory learners, so take a look at How do you spell…?, a visual, kinaesthetic and auditory spelling activity where pupils can associate the sounds they hear with letters and combinations of letters.
- I encourage pupils to keep the boxes their new shoes came in and to use these for languages! Every time some vocab cards are made and used, they go into a small (dinner-money) envelope, labelled with the topic, and these are kept in their shoebox. As the year goes on, the box gets fuller. By the time they reach KS4 they’ve already got lots of revision materials they can still benefit from. I tell parents about this on the first parents’ evening, mention it in reports and every now and again I encourage the pupils to bring their boxes in to school so they can run a few games with their partners (or rather, so that I can see if they are still keeping their cards).
- Pupils will only use these techniques on their own if they are also using them in class. I encourage them to walk around with an envelope of cards in their pocket for a couple of days and flip through the cards at odd moments. They often find this is much more effective than sitting down for a while with them.
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How do you get pupils to learn spellings, especially the key words they need in a topic or the words they usually get wrong? If they have a ‘learning homework’, how do they go about it? Is there any way we can introduce more than one learning style into this process?
I’ve always been keen to get away from L2/English vocabulary lists wherever possible. It’s true that they ‘work’ for some (they did for me), but it’s also true that they don’t for many, and it’s the many I’ve got in mind here. Even for those for whom bilingual lists in their exercise books apparently work, it’s questionable how useful they are over the long term. Getting through each week’s vocabulary test can give a confidence boost I suppose, but how useful is it today if a pupil can no longer remember what they crammed for a test 3 weeks ago? And for us, a list of impressive test scores in our mark books/spreadsheets suggests a high level of attainment, maybe even a consistently high level, but how meaningful is this evidence for deciding next steps or reporting to parents unless the same student is performing at a similar level when writing freely?
So, these are the principles I’ve worked with when it comes to vocab learning:
- Little and often is better than lots all at once
- Vocabulary discovered in a context (albeit a context I create) and lifted out of it is more effectively remembered than a list of random words, irrespective of whether they come from a single topic area or not
- I limit the range of vocabulary to be learned only to those words we will actually use. (If they want to learn more, that’s fine of course)
- Whichever memory technique is chosen, it needs to make the learner think rather than just try to memorise
- Within the learning activity/technique, a disrupted, random order of the vocabulary is better than a sequential list where the learner already knows what comes at the beginning and the end
- In the activities I plan and the work I set over the course of a unit (however long that lasts), I need to create plenty of opportunities for pupils to keep using the vocabulary they have learned.
In all of the 10 techniques that follow (5 here, 5 next week), I’m assuming the vocabulary has already been presented, comprehension and pronunciation checked and some sort of repetition activity done. All of them can be done with a partner in class or with a parent at home (which makes them useful for when parents ask what they can do to help their child, even if they don’t know the language themselves), or with the student using them on their own (except for one). Most of them use small cards.
The vocabulary is written on one side of the cards (one item per card), a quick symbol to represent it is drawn on the other. The cards are shuffled and the pupil has to guess the word on the back by looking at the symbol. There really is no need for the picture to be a masterpiece. A quick, simple symbol is enough.
One set of cards has the vocabulary written on them, one item per card. Another set of cards, preferably a different colour, has the symbols to represent the vocabulary, one on each card. The cards are all spread face up on the table and the pupil has to match up the vocabulary and symbols against the clock.
You need the same set of cards as for Match-up. All the cards are face down this time. They are only allowed to turn over 2 cards at any one time, one from each set, a symbol and a vocab card. If the cards match, they keep them. If they don’t, they have to turn them back over again. Playing in pairs, the winner is the one with the most pairs at the end. Playing alone, they have to do it faster each time they play.
- Missing letters
Again, one vocabulary item per card. On the back of each card, the word is written again, but with some of the letters missing and dashes in their place. Try it with the cards you can download here: Vocab cards – it can be quite tricky, especially if the first letter is one of the missing letters. When pupils make their own cards and they are choosing which letters to miss out, I encourage them to plump for the letters they usually forget. If I make the cards for use in class, as you’ll see in the examples, I set them out across the page in three columns, the whole thing centred on the page (that bit is important – if it’s not centred the cards on the back won’t line up). I then make a duplicate of that page for the back of the cards, but whereas the columns go from left to right on one side, they need to go from right to left on the other, otherwise the middle column will be fine, but you’ll have the wrong answers on the back of the other two columns. I know, I’ve done it…
- Missing words
The same idea as above, but for whole sentences instead of single words. In a sentence of, say, 10 words, 3 of them can be blanked out. You need enough words to create a context for them to be able to work out the missing word. This is a good follow-up to marked work so that pupils can learn corrections, especially where they have written fairly (or completely) freely. As I’m marking work, when I start to notice that the same sort of sentence is being mangled by a few students, I jot it down for my own reference later. When I’ve finished marking, it’s a quick job to make up a few cards on a template (I use about 12 at the most) with these sentences, run them off on the photocopier, the pupils cut them up and they are all ready to play.
Next time, another 5 techniques and some tips on making them work effectively.
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